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  • Well logging
  • Computer generated logs
  • In recent years, well log interpretation has been greatly simplified and improved by the use of the computer-generated logs. Wellsite computers now receive the wealth of information that is transmitted to the surface by a downhole telemetry system, and store it on magnetic tape while making corrections for differences in environment. Computers merge data, make complex calculations, and then print out various log formats. The computer’s strength is its speed and capability to make judgments, and therefore does only what it is told. Today a computer program simply cannot put together all of the comprehensive formation data available from all the individuals involved in the venture and make true interpretations. Prior knowledge and planning together with information that a computer can provide does make well logging easier.
    Wellsite computer logs, often called quick-look logs, and computing center logs, are the two most common. The major difference between them is the size of the computer making the calculations. The more powerful equipment can handle more complex software programs and thus make more calculations.
    Wellsite computer logs indicate water saturation and porosity without the detailed analysis that computer center logs make. Most of them use deep resistivity, neutron and density porosity, gamma ray, SP, and caliper curves to solve for water saturation. The log values are first corrected in a preliminary interpretation pass for environmental effects such as borehole size, temperature, mud weight, and salinity. The corrected porosities from the neutron and density logs are cross-plotted on this pass. The logging engineer then picks the various parameters needed to make the final interpreted log.
    One major strength of computer-generated logs is that calculations are made continuously. It helpfully shades the readout so that the amount of hydrocarbons present stands out, or it indicates different rock types by changing the shading or dot pattern between curves.
    Wellsite logs come in many different formats to fit the needs of the drilling engineer, geologist, reservoir engineer, or other operating company representative. The geologist needs to know all important interpretations that will aid in pipe-setting decisions, and the production engineer uses these logs to calculate the amount of gas, oil, and water coming from a zone.
    Computer-generated logs have changed the face of logging forever, and improvements are being made in them almost daily. The capabilities of the newest versions are displayed in a number of ways, including high-quality 3-D maps in color. Today’s computerized systems are capable of performing multiple tasks. Thus, at the same time underground information is being acquired, the system can also be transmitting data from wellsite to remote locations, making calibrations and computations, and also playing back data presentations on high-resolution color monitors.
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